Emergency Gear: Ok, here's another category that is quite varied from one hiker to the next so I'll give you my idea of what "emergency gear" consists of. Many people carry next to nothing others carry the kitchen sink. The one thing I ask myself if I'm going to be any further than a short walk from "civilization" is what would I need to survive an unplanned night out without too much discomfort. I by no means think that I'll be enjoying myself but I do want to have enough that I don't end up with frostbite! In that vane, here's what I may be carrying at any given time.
Food: A bit of chocolate & a few hard candies. I'm not looking to chow down I'm simply trying to have a little something to keep my metabolism up if I end up out for longer than expected.
Shelter: If you're out in winter you really should have some means of shelter if you're forced to spend the night. Some people carry a tent, yes even on day hikes. Personally I carry a bivy sack. The idea is to be prepared for whatever may happen.
Fire Starter: Sadly, starting a fire is becoming a lost art and it certainly can not be counted on as a possibility in all circumstances but in some situations it could literally be a life saver! I carry some water/wind proof matches, a small "Bic" lighter, a small piece of candle and a piece of "fire starter" that can be purchased at most good outdoor stores. It's also important to get some practice in using these items.
Repair Kit: It needn't be terribly extensive but it's a good idea to be able to make basic gear repairs while in the field.
Duct Tape: I have a couple of yards wrapped around the top of my trekking poles.
Cable Ties: These are the handiest little items imaginable for repairing everything from a broken snowshoe to building a basic splint
Cord: I carry about 20 feet of nylon cord, again handy for many purposes.
Safety Pins: 3 or 4 of assorted sizes
Emergency Blanket: I prefer something a bit more sturdy than the conventional emergency blanket. For about $20.00 you can purchase one that is designed like a sleeping bag with a Velcro "zipper" that even has a sort of lining. Much more rugged and much less likely to blow away than the more basic ones.